Dynamic Discovery Quick Start

Contents

In this tutorial, we will explain the basic concepts of D2 using a simple client server project. Apache Zookeeper is required for doing this tutorial. The completed code for this tutorial is available in Rest.li’s examples/d2-quickstart:

What is D2 in a Nutshell

Imagine we have a Service Oriented Architecture. Let’s say we have hundreds of servers. Each server can host different set of services. Some of those services may be partitioned, so a server may belong to some specific partitions for those services. We use D2 to store information about which server can serve what service. So this means with D2, a client requesting a particular service doesn’t need to know where the physical servers are. The client can ask D2 to route a request to the right server. D2 is similar to DNS in some ways. At the core, D2 is a layer of indirection between a client and a server. However, D2 supports many other goodies like client side load balancing, partitioning, and multi-data-center routing.

Our smallest unit of indirection is called a service. A service can be a URL endpoint, a Rest.li resource, or anything else as long as the name of the service is unique. A collection of services is called a cluster. A service that belongs to one cluster cannot belong to a different cluster. A cluster has one-to-many relationship to a service. All this information about clusters and services is stored in Zookeeper.

A server joins a cluster by creating an ephemeral node in Zookeeper. When a server dies, Zookeeper will notice because the heart beat message is not refreshed. Then, the ephemeral node is automatically removed.

A client attempting to send a request to a service first consults Zookeeper to find out which cluster owns the service. Then, the client queries Zookeeper for all the ephemeral nodes (servers) for that cluster. Given a list of ephemeral nodes, the client will deliberately choose a server to send the request to.

That is all you need to know about D2 in a nutshell.

The Tutorial

We will create a basic client server application in Java. We use gradle for our build process. The top level structure of our project will have 3 subdirectories:

/server
/client
/config

You also need a settings.gradle and build.gradle file in the root directory.

For settings.gradle:

include 'server'
include 'client'
include 'config'

This will tell gradle that gradle should search for server, client, config directories and mark them as part of the project.

For build.gradle:

allprojects {
    apply plugin: 'idea'
    apply plugin: 'eclipse'
}

final pegasusVersion = '1.20.0'
ext.spec = [
    'product' : [
        'pegasus' : [
                'r2' : 'com.linkedin.pegasus:r2:' + pegasusVersion,
                'd2' : 'com.linkedin.pegasus:d2:' + pegasusVersion
        ]
    ]
]

subprojects {
    repositories {
        mavenLocal()
        mavenCentral()
    }
}

This tells gradle that it should use pegasus artifact version 1.20.0 from the maven central repository. This also tells gradle we have dependencies to r2 and d2 libraries.

Step 1. Create a Server

Create the following project structure in the server sub-directory:

  • d2-quickstart/
    • client/
    • config/
    • server/
      • build.gradle
      • src/
        • main/
          • java/
            • com/
              • example/
                • d2/
                  • server/
                    • EchoServer.java
                    • ExampleD2Server.java
          • config/
            • server.json

In this example, we are creating an echo server to illustrate a real production server. The echo server always returns HTTP status code 200 and prints to stdout when a request comes in.

First, we add our compile dependencies to the server’s build.gradle:

apply plugin: 'java'

dependencies {
    compile 'com.googlecode.json-simple:json-simple:1.1.1'
    compile spec.product.pegasus.r2
    compile spec.product.pegasus.d2
}

Here is the implementation of the echo server:

package com.example.d2.server;

import com.sun.net.httpserver.HttpExchange;
import com.sun.net.httpserver.HttpHandler;
import com.sun.net.httpserver.HttpServer;

import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.OutputStream;
import java.net.InetSocketAddress;
import java.util.Date;
import java.util.List;

public class EchoServer
{
  private final int        _port;
  private final HttpServer _server;

  public EchoServer (int port, final String name, List<String> contextPaths)
      throws IOException
  {
    _port = port;
    _server = HttpServer.create(new InetSocketAddress(_port), 0);
    for (String contextPath : contextPaths)
    {
      _server.createContext(contextPath, new MyHandler(contextPath, name));
    }
    _server.setExecutor(null);
  }

  static class MyHandler implements HttpHandler
  {
    private final String _name;
    private final String _serverName;

    private MyHandler(String name, String serverName)
    {
      _name = name;
      _serverName = serverName;
    }

    public void handle(HttpExchange t) throws IOException
    {
      System.out.println(new Date().toString() + ": " + _serverName
                             + " received a request for the context handler = " + _name );
      String response = "Successfully contacted server " + _serverName;
      t.sendResponseHeaders(200, response.length());
      OutputStream os = t.getResponseBody();
      os.write(response.getBytes());
      os.close();
    }
  }

  public void start()
      throws IOException
  {
    _server.start();
  }

  public void stop()
      throws IOException
  {
    _server.stop(0);
  }

}

We store the configuration for the servers in server.json. Here is the content of server.json:

{
    "echoServers" :
        [
            {
                "name" : "RecommendationService-1",
                "port" : 39901,
                "threadPoolSize" : 1,
                "contextPaths" : [
                    "/articleRecommendation",
                    "/jobRecommendation"
                ]
            },
            {
                "name" : "RecommendationService-2",
                "port" : 39902,
                "threadPoolSize" : 1,
                "contextPaths" : [
                    "/articleRecommendation",
                    "/jobRecommendation"
                ]
            },
            {
                "name" : "RecommendationService-3",
                "port" : 39903,
                "threadPoolSize" : 1,
                "contextPaths" : [
                    "/articleRecommendation",
                    "/jobRecommendation"
                ]
            },
            {
                "name" : "NewsService-1",
                "port" : 39904,
                "threadPoolSize" : 1,
                "contextPaths" : [
                    "/newsArticle"
                ]
            },
            {
                "name" : "NewsService-2",
                "port" : 39905,
                "threadPoolSize" : 1,
                "contextPaths" : [
                    "/newsArticle"
                ]
            },
            {
                "name" : "NewsService-3",
                "port" : 39906,
                "threadPoolSize" : 1,
                "contextPaths" : [
                    "/newsArticle"
                ]
            }
        ],
    "d2Servers" :
        [
            {
                "serverUri" : "http://localhost:39901",
                "d2Cluster" : "RecommendationService",
                "partitionData" : {
                    "0" : {
                        "weight" : "1.0"
                    }
                }
            },
            {
                "serverUri" : "http://localhost:39902",
                "d2Cluster" : "RecommendationService",
                "partitionData" : {
                    "0" : {
                        "weight" : "1.0"
                    }
                }
            },
            {
                "serverUri" : "http://localhost:39903",
                "d2Cluster" : "RecommendationService",
                "partitionData" : {
                    "0" : {
                        "weight" : "1.0"
                    }
                }
            },
            {
                "serverUri" : "http://localhost:39904",
                "d2Cluster" : "NewsService",
                "partitionData" : {
                    "0" : {
                        "weight" : "1.0"
                    }
                }
            },
            {
                "serverUri" : "http://localhost:39905",
                "d2Cluster" : "NewsService",
                "partitionData" : {
                    "0" : {
                        "weight" : "1.0"
                    }
                }
            },
            {
                "serverUri" : "http://localhost:39906",
                "d2Cluster" : "NewsService",
                "partitionData" : {
                    "0" : {
                        "weight" : "1.0"
                    }
                }
            }
        ],
    "zkConnectString" : "localhost:2181",
    "zkSessionTimeout" : 5000,
    "zkBasePath" : "/d2",
    "zkRetryLimit" : 10,
    "announcerStartTimeout" : 5000,
    "announcerShutdownTimeout" : 5000
}

In the configuration, above we have 6 echo servers and 6 d2 announcers. The first 3 echo servers belong to RecommendationService, and the remaining echo servers belong to NewsService.

Finally, we add the task of running this server to the server’s build.gradle:

task runServer(type: JavaExec) {
    main = 'com.example.d2.server.ExampleD2Server'
    classpath = sourceSets.main.runtimeClasspath
    standardInput = System.in
}

In order to run the server, you run this command:

../../gradlew runServer

Step 2. Create a Config Runner

Create the following project structure in the ‘config’ sub-directory:

  • d2-quickstart/
    • client/
    • config/
      • build.gradle
      • src/
        • main/
          • java/
            • com/
              • example/
                • d2/
                  • config/
                    • ConfigRunner.java
          • d2Config/
            • d2Config.json
    • server/

We specify the mapping of clusters and services in d2Config.json. In real production scenario, we can do a lot more with d2Config. We can configure how the load balancer behaves. We can also set up partitioning and sticky routings.

But for simplicity we won’t include all these in this example. Here is how our d2Config.json going to look like:

{
    "d2Clusters" : {
        "RecommendationService": {
            "services":
                {
                    "articleRecommendation": {
                        "path" : "/articleRecommendation"
                    },
                    "jobRecommendation": {
                        "path" : "/jobRecommendation"
                    }
                }

        },
        "NewsService": {
            "services":
                {
                    "newsArticle" : {
                        "path" : "/newsArticle"
                    }
                }

        }
    },
    "defaultServiceProperties" : {
        "loadBalancerStrategyList" : [
            "degraderV3",
            "degraderV2"
        ],
        "prioritizedSchemes" : [
            "http"
        ],
        "loadBalancerStrategyProperties" : {
            "http.loadBalancer.updateIntervalMs" : "5000",
            "http.loadBalancer.pointsPerWeight" : "100"
        },
        "transportClientProperties" : {
            "http.requestTimeout" : "10000"
        },
        "degraderProperties" : {
            "degrader.minCallCount" : "10",
            "degrader.lowErrorRate" : "0.01",
            "degrader.highErrorRate" : "0.1"
        }
    },
    "zkConnectString" : "localhost:2181",
    "zkSessionTimeout" : 5000,
    "zkBasePath" : "/d2",
    "zkRetryLimit" : 10
}

From reading the configuration above you probably have questions about these properties. So here are some explanation for some non-obvious ones.

  • loadBalancerStrategyList was set to a list consisting of degraderV3 and degraderV2. This means, we try to use degraderV3 if possible. The difference between degraderV3 and degraderV2 is degraderV3 supports partitioning while degraderV2 does not.
  • For schemes we support https and http, but for simplicity we’ll use only http. Using https require us to wire in SSL parameter and that’s beyond the scope of this example.

The rest of the config values should be pretty obvious. For the list of all configuration please see D2 Zookeeper Properties

Then we modify the config’s build.gradle to add our java dependencies.

apply plugin: 'java'

dependencies {
    compile 'com.googlecode.json-simple:json-simple:1.1.1'
    compile spec.product.pegasus.d2
}

Next we will create a java class that reads this config and publish it to zookeeper. We have a utility class called D2Config that does this for you. But we have to feed D2Config some parameters in order for it to work.

Here’s the java class for running the D2Config.

package com.example.d2.config;
import com.linkedin.d2.discovery.util.D2Config;
import org.json.simple.JSONObject;
import org.json.simple.parser.JSONParser;

import java.io.File;
import java.io.FileReader;
import java.util.Collections;
import java.util.Map;

public class ConfigRunner
{
  public static void main(String[] args)
      throws Exception
  {
    //get server configuration
    String path = new File(new File(".").getAbsolutePath()).getCanonicalPath() +
        "/src/main/d2Config/d2Config.json";
    JSONParser parser = new JSONParser();
    Object object = parser.parse(new FileReader(path));
    JSONObject json = (JSONObject) object;
    System.out.println("Finished parsing d2 topology config");

    String zkConnectString = (String)json.get("zkConnectString");
    int zkSessionTimeout = ((Long)json.get("zkSessionTimeout")).intValue();
    String zkBasePath = (String)json.get("zkBasePath");
    int zkRetryLimit = ((Long)json.get("zkRetryLimit")).intValue();

    Map<String,Object> serviceDefaults = (Map<String, Object>)json.get(
        "defaultServiceProperties");

    //this contains the topology of our system
    Map<String,Object> clusterServiceConfigurations =
        (Map<String, Object>)json.get("d2Clusters");

    System.out.println("Populating zookeeper with d2 configuration");

    //d2Config is the utility class for populating zookeeper with our topology
    //some the params are not needed for this simple example so we will just use
    //default value by passing an empty map
    D2Config d2Config = new D2Config(zkConnectString, zkSessionTimeout, zkBasePath,
                                     zkSessionTimeout, zkRetryLimit,
                                     (Map<String, Object>)Collections.EMPTY_MAP,
                                     serviceDefaults,
                                     clusterServiceConfigurations,
                                     (Map<String, Object>)Collections.EMPTY_MAP,
                                     (Map<String, Object>)Collections.EMPTY_MAP);

    //populate zookeeper
    d2Config.configure();
    System.out.println("Finished populating zookeeper with d2 configuration");
  }
}

Finally, we add a task in config’s build.gradle to run the above Java class.

task runConfigRunner(type: JavaExec) {
    main = 'com.example.d2.config.ConfigRunner'
    classpath = sourceSets.main.runtimeClasspath
    standardInput = System.in
}

In order to run D2Config run ../../gradlew runConfigRunner

Step 3. Create a Client

Create the following project structure in the ‘client’ subdirectory:

  • d2-quickstart/
    • client/
      • build.gradle
      • src/
        • main/
          • java/
            • com/
              • example/
                • d2/
                  • client/
                    • ExampleD2Client.java
          • config/
            • client.json
    • config/
    • server/

First we create build.gradle to declare our java dependencies

apply plugin: 'java'
dependencies {
    compile 'com.googlecode.json-simple:json-simple:1.1.1'
    compile spec.product.pegasus.d2
}

Then we need the client code to instantiate D2 client and to send traffic through the D2 client. Here’s how our ExampleD2Client looks like:

package com.example.d2.client;

import com.linkedin.common.callback.Callback;
import com.linkedin.common.util.None;
import com.linkedin.d2.balancer.D2Client;
import com.linkedin.d2.balancer.D2ClientBuilder;
import com.linkedin.r2.message.rest.RestRequest;
import com.linkedin.r2.message.rest.RestRequestBuilder;
import org.json.simple.JSONObject;
import org.json.simple.parser.JSONParser;
import org.json.simple.parser.ParseException;

import java.io.File;
import java.io.FileReader;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.net.URI;
import java.net.URISyntaxException;
import java.util.Map;
import java.util.concurrent.CountDownLatch;
import java.util.concurrent.ExecutorService;
import java.util.concurrent.Executors;
import java.util.concurrent.ScheduledExecutorService;
import java.util.concurrent.ScheduledFuture;
import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;

public class ExampleD2Client
{
  public static void main(String[] args)
      throws IOException, ParseException, InterruptedException
  {
    //get client configuration
    JSONObject json = parseConfig();
    String zkConnectString = (String) json.get("zkConnectString");
    Long zkSessionTimeout = (Long) json.get("zkSessionTimeout");
    String zkBasePath = (String) json.get("zkBasePath");
    Long zkStartupTimeout = (Long) json.get("zkStartupTimeout");
    Long zkLoadBalancerNotificationTimeout = (Long) json.get("zkLoadBalancerNotificationTimeout");
    String zkFlagFile = (String) json.get("zkFlagFile");
    String fsBasePath = (String) json.get("fsBasePath");
    final Map<String, Long> trafficProportion = (Map<String, Long>) json.get("trafficProportion");
    final Long clientShutdownTimeout = (Long) json.get("clientShutdownTimeout");
    final Long clientStartTimeout = (Long) json.get("clientStartTimeout");
    Long rate = (Long) json.get("rateMillisecond");
    System.out.println("Finished parsing client config");

    //create d2 client
    final D2Client d2Client = new D2ClientBuilder().setZkHosts(zkConnectString)
                                                      .setZkSessionTimeout(
                                                          zkSessionTimeout,
                                                          TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS)
                                                      .setZkStartupTimeout(
                                                          zkStartupTimeout,
                                                          TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS)
                                                      .setLbWaitTimeout(
                                                          zkLoadBalancerNotificationTimeout,
                                                          TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS)
                                                      .setFlagFile(zkFlagFile)
                                                      .setBasePath(zkBasePath)
                                                      .setFsBasePath(fsBasePath)
                                                      .build();

    System.out.println("Finished creating d2 client, starting d2 client...");

    ScheduledExecutorService executorService = Executors.newSingleThreadScheduledExecutor();
    final CountDownLatch latch = new CountDownLatch(1);

    //start d2 client by connecting to zookeeper
    startClient(d2Client, executorService, clientStartTimeout,
                new Callback<None>()
                {
                  @Override
                  public void onError (Throwable e)
                  {
                    System.exit(1);
                  }

                  @Override
                  public void onSuccess (None result)
                  {
                    latch.countDown();
                  }
                });
    latch.await();
    System.out.println("D2 client is sending traffic");

    ScheduledFuture task = executorService.scheduleAtFixedRate(new Runnable()
    {
      @Override
      public void run ()
      {
        try
        {
          sendTraffic(trafficProportion, d2Client);
        }
        catch (URISyntaxException e)
        {
          e.printStackTrace();
        }
      }
    }, 0, rate, TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS);

    System.out.println("Press enter to stop D2 client...");
    System.in.read();
    task.cancel(false);
    System.out.println("Shutting down...");
    shutdown(d2Client, executorService, clientShutdownTimeout);
  }

  private static void startClient(final D2Client d2Client,
                                  ExecutorService executorService,
                                  Long timeout,
                                  final Callback<None> callback)
  {
    try
    {
      executorService.submit(new Runnable()
      {
        @Override
        public void run ()
        {
          d2Client.start(new Callback<None>()
          {
            @Override
            public void onError (Throwable e)
            {
              System.err.println("Error starting d2Client. Aborting... ");
              e.printStackTrace();
              System.exit(1);
            }

            @Override
            public void onSuccess (None result)
            {
              System.out.println("D2 client started");
              callback.onSuccess(None.none());
            }
          });
        }
      }).get(timeout, TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS);
    }
    catch (Exception e)
    {
      System.err.println("Cannot start d2 client. Timeout is set to " +
                             timeout + " ms");
      e.printStackTrace();
    }
  }

  private static void shutdown(final D2Client d2Client,
                               ExecutorService executorService,
                               Long timeout)
  {
    try
    {
      executorService.submit(new Runnable()
      {
        @Override
        public void run ()
        {
          d2Client.shutdown(new Callback<None>()
          {
            @Override
            public void onError (Throwable e)
            {
              System.err.println("Error shutting down d2Client.");
              e.printStackTrace();
            }

            @Override
            public void onSuccess (None result)
            {
              System.out.println("D2 client stopped");
            }
          });
        }
      }).get(timeout, TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS);
    }
    catch (Exception e)
    {
      System.err.println("Cannot stop d2 client. Timeout is set to " +
                             timeout + " ms");
      e.printStackTrace();
    }
    finally
    {
      executorService.shutdown();
    }
  }

  private static JSONObject parseConfig()
      throws IOException, ParseException
  {
    String path = new File(new File(".").getAbsolutePath()).getCanonicalPath() +
        "/src/main/config/client.json";
    JSONParser parser = new JSONParser();
    Object object = parser.parse(new FileReader(path));
    return (JSONObject) object;
  }

  private static void sendTraffic(Map<String, Long> trafficProportion, D2Client d2Client)
      throws URISyntaxException
  {
    for (Map.Entry<String, Long> entry : trafficProportion.entrySet())
    {
      URI uri = new URI("d2://" + entry.getKey());
      RestRequest request = new RestRequestBuilder(uri).setMethod("get").build();
      for (long i = 0; i < entry.getValue(); i++)
      {
        //we don't care about the result from the server after all,
        //you can see the traffic hits the echo server from stdout
        d2Client.restRequest(request);
      }
    }
  }
}

In the above code, sendTraffic() will send request based on the trafficProportion configured in client.json. Let’s configure the config so that the client sends:

  • 3 requests to “newsArticle” service every 1000 ms.
  • 2 requests to “jobRecommendation” service every 1000 ms.
  • 1 request to “articleRecommendation” service every 1000 ms.

Here’s our client.json:

{
    "zkConnectString" : "localhost:2181",
    "zkSessionTimeout" : 5000,
    "zkStartupTimeout" : 5000,
    "zkLoadBalancerNotificationTimeout" : 5000,
    "zkFlagFile" : "/tmp/suppressZkFlag",
    "zkBasePath" : "/d2",
    "fsBasePath" : "/tmp/backup",
    "clientShutdownTimeout" : 5000,
    "clientStartTimeout" : 5000,
    "trafficProportion" : {
        "newsArticle": 3,
        "jobRecommendation": 2,
        "articleRecommendation" : 1
    },
    "rateMillisecond" : 1000
}

Now we are ready to add the following task to build.gradle:

task runClient(type: JavaExec) {
    main = 'com.example.d2.client.ExampleD2Client'
    classpath = sourceSets.main.runtimeClasspath
    standardInput = System.in
}

To run the client, run the following command in a different terminal console:

../../gradlew runClient

Next Steps

Congratulations! You have finished this tutorial. Now you can build your own D2 client/server applications. Next, you can learn the advanced features of D2 examples like the following:

  • Partitioning and sticky routing
  • Tuning load balancer
  • Overriding client properties
  • And many more

To do so, check out the examples in the Res.tli source code. Go to /example/d2-advanced-examples.